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Allergic Rhinitis - Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment



Pollens microscopic picture. The pollens are
one of the causes of Allergic rhinitis
Allergic rhinitis usually occurs when the immune system of the body over-reacts to the particles in the atmosphere that one breathes in and is allergic to those particles such as dust, pollen, and dander. The immune system attacks these particles and causes various symptoms such as a runny nose, and sneezing.

These particles are called allergens, meaning that they cause allergic reactions. There are two types of this allergy: seasonal allergic rhinitis, which is known as the hay fever and the other, is called the perennial allergic rhinitis. People suffering from such allergies usually suffer from the symptoms for many years and other kinds of reactions like sinus, ear infections crops up.

Symptoms of Allergic Rhinitis

When a person has allergic rhinitis, the following symptoms usually occur:

•    The eyes become very watery and they start to itch
•    One sneezes constantly, especially after he or she wakes up in the morning.
•    The ears, throat and nose also become very itchy
•    Runny nose and postnasal drip is also among the symptoms. The drainage from such runny nose caused by the allergy, though clean but can become thicker and cloudy or can also be yellowish in colour if the sinus or the nasal infection sets on.

Causes

Allergens causing the allergic rhinitis may vary from a person to person and vary according to the different areas. Plants causing this allergy are:

•    Ragweed
•    Grasses
•    Trees

Other causes that cause this allergy may include:

•    Pet dander
•    Cockroaches
•    Dust as well as household mites
•    Mold which grows on wallpaper, carpeting, house plants

If one is allergic to the pollens, he or she may develop the allergy only at particular times of the year. Whereas, being allergic to the indoor allergens or dust mites gives rise to symptoms almost all over the year.

Diagnosis of Allergic Rhinitis

Diagnosis of the allergic rhinitis includes a physical exam, which is performed by the doctor on the patient, and questions are asked about the symptoms the patient is suffering from. The history of the symptoms is very important for proper diagnosis and various questions may be asked like whether the symptoms varies from season to season, or are caused due to other allergens. Skin tests, which are the common forms of allergy testing, can be performed in order to reveal the prime triggers causing the allergy. If skin tests are not possible, then the doctor may perform a blood test for diagnosis.

Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis

Though there is no actual treatment for this allergy, it is best to avoid the things that are primarily causing the allergy. One may also take over-the-counter drugs for treating of his or her allergies if he or she is not suffering from other health problems like asthma. In such cases, doctors should be consulted first. Moreover, if the allergies are bothersome and there is no way that person is able to avoid the allergens, then a doctor’s advice should be taken in order to get immunotherapy which are also known as allergy shots. They control the symptoms but the patient needs to know the substances he or she is allergic to.





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